How to Keep Your Dog Safe in the Car

For many, there’s nothing better than driving around with your furry best friend in the passenger seat. Unfortunately, this activity can turn dangerous very quickly. Having an animal in the car can lead to major distractions for the driver that could result in a serious accident on the road. As stated by a Lowell car accident lawyer, “An auto accident can cause serious to catastrophic injuries to those involved.”

According to Pet Pro Supply Co, 60% of dog owners have driven while distracted by their pets as passengers. These distractions can be magnified by a dog that is loose in the vehicle or displaying anxious behaviors. Below, we will discuss how to keep your dog (and yourself!) safe while riding in the car. 

  • Buckle up: Restrain your dog using a harness or a dog seatbelt to prevent them from roaming around the moving vehicle. This can prevent instances of your dog jumping in your lap or climbing on you while you’re operating the car.
  • Check the car temperature: On a 75 degree day, the temperature inside of a vehicle can go up to 100 degrees. Avoid leaving your pup inside a car as they can experience heat exhaustion, heat stroke, and in some instances, death.
  • Use barriers: Limit your dog’s space in the car without using a dog seat belt or a leash by setting up a divider in the car. The divider can block the dog from accessing the driver and passenger seat, but still be able to stretch out and relax in the back part of the car.
  • Take breaks: Plan breaks on your drive for your dog to get out and stretch their legs. This can include local dog parks or safe areas away from busy roads. This can help your dog get out any extra energy and help them relax during the ride. 
  • Keep front seats for humans only: Make the front part of the car a “humans only” zone. Your dog will be less likely to jump in your lap or cause you to take your eyes off the road for long periods of time if they are confined to the backseat.

Driving with your dog doesn’t have to be stressful. There are many ways, including dog seat belts and crates,  that can help you and your dog stay safe while enjoying a ride together.

Ask an Attorney: What You Need To Know About Dog Bite Liability

We asked Greg Colburn, a top-rated dog bite lawyer, a few frequently asked questions about dog bite liability. Greg reminds us that although we love our furry friends, it’s always important to remember to take all responsible acts necessary to ensure the safety of anyone that comes into contact with your dog. All dogs are capable of causing serious injury to people, especially children.

What if your dog injures someone – by a bite or by knocking him or her down?

If your dog injures a person by biting, you are responsible for all of the harm suffered by the bite victim.  The exceptions to this rule exist when the person was trespassing or provoking your dog.  Three causes of action are available to the dog bite victim, as discussed further below.

If your dog knocks a person down, you may be responsible but establishing that type of civil claim can be much harder than a dog bite claim because strict liability does not typically attach; rather, the victim needs to establish that you were negligent, as discussed further below.

Does homeowner’s liability insurance and/or umbrella policy cover injuries committed by your dog?

Typically, yes, homeowners insurance and umbrella policies provide coverage if your dog bites a person.  Some policies provide coverage exclusions based upon dog breeds (discussed further below).

I am still surprised at the number of dog owners that are unaware that their homeowner’s insurance provides coverage for dog bite claims.  When we are hired by dog bite victims and make initial contact with dog owners, a good number of dog owners refuse to provide homeowners insurance because they don’t think they have “dog bite insurance”.

An example of liability protection language from a homeowners policy includes, “We will pay damages which an insured person becomes legally obligated to pay because of bodily injury or property damage arising from an occurrence to which this policy applies…”  In other words, if a homeowner’s dog bites a person and, as a result, the homeowner is legally liable for the harm, then the liability protection afforded by homeowners insurance applies and protects the homeowner/dog owner.

The homeowners insurance will pay for a personal injury settlement or judgment up to the limit of coverage, and the homeowners insurance will pay for a legal defense if a lawsuit is commenced.

What Liability Does Umbrella Coverage Provide?

Umbrella coverage typically provides the same type of liability coverage as primary homeowners insurance.  However, many homeowners are unaware that for umbrella coverage to apply, the primary homeowners insurance must have minimum coverage limits.

For example, some insurance companies require homeowners to carry a minimum of $500,000 bodily injury liability protection before the homeowners’ umbrella coverage applies.  In such an instance, if the homeowner only has $300,000 of bodily injury liability protection on their homeowners insurance, they would be uninsured for damages between $300,000 to $500,000 – in other words, the homeowner would have $200,000 of personal exposure.

In addition to homeowners and umbrella insurance, renters insurance policies can also provide coverage for dog bite claims.  Coverage language may state, “If a claim is made or a suit is brought against an insured for damages because of bodily injury or property damage to which this coverage applies [Liability Coverages], caused by an occurrence, we will:  1.  pay up to our limit of liability for damages for which the insured is legally liable; and 2. provide a defense at our expense by counsel of our choice.

Notably, some homeowner and renters insurance policies exclude liability coverage for injuries caused by certain dog breeds, including but not limited to:   pit bulls; chow chows, Doberman pinschers; Rottweilers; mastiffs; German shepherds; wolf-hybrids; Rhodesian ridgebacks; and, Akitas.

Legal protections and compensation rights of the injured person.

The legal protections for dog bite victims include two overarching categories:  (1) protection from future attacks through regulatory actions by local animal control; and, (2) civil claims for injuries and damages.

 Victims of dog bites and attacks need to report dog bites to local animal control to try to prevent the dog from biting the victim again, or other members of the community.  If animal control doesn’t know that a dog bite has occurred, then animal control cannot do anything to educate the dog owners, enforce dog safety regulations, and prevent future dog bites and attacks.

 Far too many times have I been retained by a dog bite victim with serious bodily injuries only to learn through investigation that the attacking dog was a repeat offender; however, none of the dog’s previous victims had notified animal control.

In such circumstances, not only does the failure to notify animal control make it more difficult for animal control to take action against the dog owners and dog (e.g. issue a dangerous dog declaration that imposes restrictions on the dog owners, like providing a proper enclosure, ensuring muzzling, and carrying bodily injury insurance), but it can also create hurdles for the dog bite victim when seeking compensation for injuries and damages.

Dog bite victims have the right to monetary compensation for all available damages supported by the claim.  These damages include:

  • Past and future medical expenses
  • Past and future lost earnings
  • Past and future physical pain and suffering
  • Past and future emotional pain and suffering
  • Past and future disability
  • Scarring and/or disfigurement
  • Past and future loss of enjoyment of life
  • Past and future inconvenience

Dog bite cases are different from typical personal injuries, like car accident cases, for one major reason:  Dog bites are physical assaults.

When a car hits another car, two inanimate objects collide with the collision causing injuries to the people inside the cars.  The people, occupants of the cars, never hit each other personally.  One person is not attacking another person.

When a dog attacks a human being, a living breathing animal is assaulting that person.  The dog is baring its teeth.  The dog is growling.  The dog is staring right at the person.  Most importantly, the dog’s mouth, its teeth, cause injury by tearing the person’s flesh, and in some instances removing flesh and limbs.

Scarring, disfigurement, disability, and emotional pain and suffering are common injuries suffered by dog bite victims.

Dog bites cause scars that are jagged, raised, indented, uneven, and discolored.  Common areas of the body that are bitten by dogs include face; hands, arms, feet, and legs.

Facial wounds leave lasting scars that often make the dog bite victim feel disfigured.  A bite to the cheek, lip, or orbital area, leaves the victim with a permanent reminder of the attack – every day the victim looks in the mirror the person looking back is the person who existed before the dog bite.

Hands are generally bony structures, particularly susceptible to crushing and tearing injuries.  Dog bites can leave thumbs and fingers unusable.  Or, as I have seen, dogs can simply remove a thumb or a finger with one bite.

The nature of a dog bite attack necessarily leads to an increased probability of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.  A diagnosis of PTSD requires symptoms in four areas:  re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, negative alterations in cognition and mood, and increased arousal.

Many dog bite victims relive the attack over and over without the ability to push the memory from their thoughts.  They suffer nightmares and even daymares.

Dog bite victims avoid public places, or places and gatherings where they believe dogs will be, such as parks, homes of friends and family, and even areas within their own households.

As a result, dog bite victims suffer from hypervigilance.  They tend to be on constant lookout for dogs which they now perceive as threats to their safety.

What is that person legally entitled to? and, What is the compensation based on?

The dog bite victim is entitled to the sum of money that will make her whole.  In other words, an amount of compensation that will place her in as good a position as she would have been but for the dog bite.

As discussed above, the damages available to a dog bite victim include multiple categories.  Each dog bite victims claim is unique.

For comparison, the amount of money necessary to fully compensate a scar on my face from a dog bite is worth less than the same scar on my wife’s face.  First, the reality is that generally speaking the value of a scar is not viewed the same for men and women.  Second, I already have scars on my face from sports and work injuries.  My wife’s face is unscathed.  Adding an imperfection to an already imperfect face is different than marring a clean slate.

Further, how the dog bite affects a victim’s ability to work, engage in relationships, and enjoy life must all be taken into account.  I represented a chef who suffered a dog bite injury to her right thumb.  She was right hand dominant.  Because of her profession and the nature of her injuries, she was unable to work.  She not lost earnings for months, but her career path was interrupted, and her ability to enjoy her life as a chef was negatively impacted.  The ripple effects of a dog bite are numerous and ever reaching.

What should you, as an owner of the dog, do if this happens? 

 If your dog bites another person, the first thing you should do is check to see if that person is okay.  You should act like a human being.  You should offer assistance, call 9-1-1 if necessary.

You should ensure that proof of all vaccinations is made available to the dog bite victim, and in particular, proof of rabies vaccination.

You should notify your insurance carrier, whether you have homeowners insurance or renters insurance.  You have a contractual obligation to notify your insurer of potential claims to allow your insurer to conduct a full and timely investigation.

Further, many homeowners insurance policies include two coverages that can cover the loss:  Bodily Injury Liability; and, Medical Payments.  Medical Payments coverage is a no fault benefit that can pay for the dog bite victim’s medical bills up to the applicable coverage limit, which is typically in the range of $1,000 to $5,000.

 If you believe that your dog did nothing wrong then you should want your insurance company to immediately investigate the claim to ensure that you are provided a proper defense.

If your dog viciously attacked a person and that person was not trespassing on your property or provoking your dog, then as the owner you need to take responsibility.  You need to cooperate with animal control.  You to need to step back and objectively determine whether your dog can safely exist around people.  You need to consider all measures available to ensure that your dog never bites again, including:

  • Animal behavior assessment and training
  • Muzzle wearing
  • Limit exposure to strangers and children
  • Ensure that yourdog is always properly restrained whether by leash or physical enclosure
  • Place warning signs on your property to notify visitors
  • Ensure that delivery drivers (e.g. Amazon, FedEx, UPS, USPS) are not put in harm’s way when trying to deliver a package to your home

What can you expect if the injured person files a suit against you?

If the dog bite victim files a lawsuit against a dog owner for a dog bite, the dog owner can expect to be involved in litigation for at least six to twelve months.

The dog owner will be served with a summons and complaint, likely at the dog owner’s home.  This means that a process server (a person) will visit the dog owner’s home, knock on the door, and hand the lawsuit to the dog owner.  Being served can cause fear and panic in the person being served as many people have no idea what is happening.

If served, the dog owner should immediately notify their homeowners insurer or renters insurer.  The insurance company will assign an attorney to defend the case at no additional cost to the dog owner.

The dog owner will be required to answer written questions called interrogatories, and produce a litany of documents in response to requests for production.  The dog owner will have to provide personal background information as well as information about the dog.  Typically, vet records must be produced, along with any records from behavioral training or behavioral assessments.

The dog owner can expect to have their deposition taken.  Meaning, the attorney for the dog bite victim will have the opportunity to ask the dog owner questions under oath.  If the dog owner lies during deposition, the dog owner will be guilty of perjury.  The dog owner’s deposition typically lasts between two and three hours.

After significant discovery has occurred during litigation, the parties oftentimes attempt to settle the case by way of mediation.  Dog owners have no say in whether a case settles or not.  The decision to settle a dog bite victim’s claim rests solely with the insurer.

If the case doesn’t settle, then the dog owner should expect a trial.  The dog owner will likely be required to attend trial, which can last as short as a few days or as a long as a few weeks.  This means that the dog owner will need to miss work and make plans for childcare as needed.

Dog owners should know that dog bite victims are not limited to recovering only the amount of insurance available.  For example, if a dog bites a 10-year child’s arm causing injuries that require reconstructive surgery, result in permanent life-long physical scars and emotional trauma, a homeowners insurance policy with only $100,000 of bodily injury liability is insufficient.

In the above example, the child’s injuries and damages are worth significantly more than $100,000.  The dog owner needs to be prepared that their personal assets are exposed to collection.  Meaning, the settle the case or satisfy a civil judgment, the dog owner may need pay money above their insurance limits.

We recently settled a case for a child.  The dog owners had two applicable homeowners insurance policies that provided total coverage of $200,000.  To settle the case, the dog owners had to make a personal payment of $25,000 cash.

What about the one-bite law versus “dangerous dog?”

The prevailing rule in the United States is that dog owners are strictly liable for injuries caused by dog bites.  In other words, in most states, dog owners do not get a “free bite”.

The one-bite rule is followed in some form by sixteen states.  In these states, dog owners are civilly liable for dog bite injuries if the dog owner knew or reasonably should have known that their dog had dangerous or vicious tendencies.

In many states, three causes of action exist for a dog bite victim versus the dog’s owner:  (1) statutory strict liability; (2) common law strict liability; and, (3) negligence.

Strict liability means the dog owner is responsible, or liable, without regard to whether the dog owner was negligent.  Strict liability is an acknowledgment that dogs, no matter the breed, are all capable of biting or attacking a human being.

Strict liability acknowledges that dogs are animals that pose an inherent risk of causing harm.  A dog can inflict the same severity of injury and damage as many weapons; however, a dog chooses its target and a dog decides when to attack.

Statutory strict liability is governed by the laws of the state.  Typically, the owner of a dog is liable if their dog bites a person who is not trespassing and not provoking the dog.  In such a case, the dog’s history of aggression or bites is irrelevant.  The owner of a dog with no bite history or history of aggression is strictly liable for harm caused by the first dog bite.

Common law strict liability, which is established through the courts, may also create a strict liability against the dog owners of “dangerous dogs”.  Common law strict liability applies when the owner of a dog knew or reasonably should have known that their dog had aggressive or vicious propensities likely to cause the injuries suffered. As an example, in Washington, the owner of such a dog is strictly liable as stated, “One who keeps a dog, who knows or reasonably should know that the dog has vicious or dangerous propensities likely to cause the injury complained of, has a duty to kill the animal or confine it.  Any injury caused by such an animal subject the owner to prima facie liability without proof of negligence.”  Arnold v. Laird, 24 Wn.App. 244, 246, 600 P.2d 662 (1979).

Negligence claims are what most people think of when they hear about personal injuries or torts.  Negligence is the failure to exercise ordinary care.  Negligence is classically defined as the doing of some act that a reasonably careful person would not do under the same or similar circumstances or the failure to do some act that a reasonably careful person would have done under the same or similar circumstances.

For example, suppose a dog owner knows that his dog is prone to jumping up on people, including strangers.  The dog owner takes his dog to a street fair.  While at the street fair, the dog jumps up onto a child, knocks the child to the ground causing the child to hit its head and suffer serious injury.  The dog owner placed his dog – known to jump on people – in a situation that posed an increased risk of harm to people and then the dog owner failed to control his dog.  The dog owner was likely negligent and liable for the child’s injuries and damages.

About the Author: Greg Colburn

Greg Colburn

Greg Colburn is a top-rated personal injury lawyer that handles a variety of injury cases in Seattle, Bellevue, Issaquah, and surrounding areas of Washington. If you’ve suffered an injury from a dog, contact our Seattle dog bite lawyers for help regaining compensation for your injuries if you were attacked.

Florida Dog Bite Laws

According to a study by the Insurance Information Institute, nationally the average cost per dog bite claim has risen 162% from 2003 to 2020 with the average cost per dog injury claim in Florida being around $45,000. 

Dogs can make the best companions, but can also cause a lot of damage if they are triggered and bite another individual or animal. A dog bite can not only cause damage but can also spread disease. 

Every state is different when it comes to how they approach dog bite claims. Florida has a strict liability statute when it comes to dog bites. Make sure you know your rights whether you are the victim or if you believe your dog was provoked by the individual that was bitten.

Florida Dog Owner Liability

Under Florida law, the owner is liable for any damages done by their dog to another person, domestic animal, or livestock. It is important to know that Florida is a strict liability state when it comes to dog bites because as an owner you may own a very trained and well-behaved dog, but may have no warnings or indications that your dog was going to attack another individual or animal.

Florida’s Dog Bite Statute

According to the West Palm Beach personal injury attorneys at LaBovick Law Group, it is “crucial to consider the statute of limitations when pursuing a personal injury claim” so that an injury victim doesn’t miss out on the opportunity to recover fair financial compensation.

A dog bite injury claim falls under a personal injury lawsuit. In the state of Florida, personal injury lawsuits give you four years to get this kind of case started. With the four years starting the day of the attack.

“Bad Dog” Exception to Statutory Liability in Florida

If a dog bite occurs on the owner’s property with a noticeable and readable sign reading “Bad Dog” or “Beware of Dog”, then there is no liability under the statute. If the signs are posted and readable, but the individual that is bitten is under the age of 6 then the sign exception does not apply. According to the Florida dog bite statute, section 767.04, this exception is due to the fact that the victim would be too young to be able to read the sign.

Defenses to a Florida Dog Bite Claim

There are really only two defenses to a dog bite claim in Florida: comparative negligence and trespassing. Comparative negligence is when both parties are partially at fault. This can occur in the case of a dog bite attack because the victim was provoking the dog or if the animal was protecting someone in the vicinity from what the animal perceived as a threat. In the defense of trespassing this could also have to do with the animal protecting someone in the vicinity from a perceived threat if they trespassing onto the property, or as stated above it could also have to do with having proper warning signs up when the bite occurs on your property.

Contact a Personal Injury Lawyer

With dog bite claims falling under personal injury lawsuits it is essential to reach out to a Florida personal injury attorney if you were the victim of a dog bite attack, or if you are the owner of the dog and believe that the individual that was bitten was trespassing or acted with comparative negligence.

What to Do if Your Dog Bites Someone

Your dog biting another person may be one of your worst nightmares as a dog owner. On top of potentially causing serious injury, this type of incident can also lead to your dog being taken away from you.

As a dog owner, you know and love your dog. It’s important to understand the legal ramifications of a dog bite and to know how to react during those first stressful moments immediately following an attack. By educating yourself, you can become a more responsible dog owner and learn steps to take to prevent dog bites from happening in the first place.

Help the Victim

When your dog bites someone, you may feel shocked or panicked. But it’s important to remain calm. Escalating the conflict may cause your dog to attack the victim again, and it’s always better to be calm and polite.

Once you’ve confined your dog, do your part in making sure the victim gets the medical attention they need. Dog bite victims should always seek medical attention, even if the bite doesn’t seem serious. You can also offer to contact a loved one for them, and, depending on where you live, you may need to contact the police too.

Finally, make sure to exchange contact information with the victim, just as you would if you were involved in a car accident with another driver. 

Obtain Your Dog’s Medical Records

As soon as possible, contact your veterinarian to get your dog’s medical records. This is primarily so you can show proof of your dog’s rabies vaccination history to the victim. Depending on where you live, you may be legally required to do so, but either way, knowing they don’t have to worry about rabies will help put the victim’s mind at ease.

Understand Your Legal Responsibilities

Dog bite laws vary immensely by state. Some states follow a “one-bite” rule, meaning that a dog owner will only be legally responsible for an attack if the dog bit someone previously. Other states, like California, follow a strict liability dog bite statute in which owners are financially responsible for dog bites regardless of negligence.

In any case, be aware that it is up to the victim to decide whether to pursue a lawsuit. While staying nice and polite, be sure not to admit fault. Make sure to check in with them after the attack to see how their recovery is going. Consider offering to pay their medical expenses up front to maintain goodwill and attempt to avoid a lawsuit.

Tips for Preventing Dog Bites

Of course, it’s best if your dog doesn’t bite people in the first place. And as a dog owner, it is your responsibility to do everything you can to prevent that from happening. Steps you can take to prevent a bite (or a second bite) include:

  • Putting your dog through basic training, and continue training them throughout their life.
  • Making sure your dog receives proper socialization from a young age. Work with your veterinarian and/or trainer to make sure this is done safely and effectively.
  • Using positive reinforcement to discipline your dog rather than physical punishments.
  • Learning about the common reasons dogs bite, as well as your dog’s particular body language clues. This will help you understand your dog and improve your ability to de-escalate situations.
  • Keeping your dog’s vaccinations current, especially rabies.
  • Warning others before allowing interaction, if you know your dog has fearful or aggressive tendencies.
  • Keeping your dog restrained in social situations, with a short leash or an enclosure.
  • Making sure any children you are responsible for know how to interact with dogs and aren’t left alone with a dog.

Following these step will help ensure your dog stays happy and healthy while preventing bites.

8 Dog Park Tips For You and Your 4-legged Friend

You and your dog have been cooped up in the house for some time now, and you both are ready to get some fresh air, so you decide to go to the dog park. 

There are few things we should all be thinking about before we turn our 4 legged friends loose at an off-leash dog park, today we will discuss some great dop park trips. 

1) Wait to go until your dog is old enough

If your dog is still too small and wild, it will be hard to get them to obey you at the park with all of the distractions of other dogs, people, and possible traffic going by.


2) Be respectful of other dogs’ sizes

Little dogs always look so cute… but just because they are small, doesn’t make them friendly. A little dog can still attack. Make sure you and your dog take the time to introduce yourselves to the other dogs. 


3) Maintain your dog’s health and paperwork

We already know the importance of keeping our fur buddies healthy for their sake, but if we are venturing out to public places, it is even more important. Make sure they have their shots current and taking their heartworm medicine. Hopefully, it never happens, but if your dog attacks someone at the park, you will need to verify it has had a current rabies shot. It is a good idea to keep a copy easily accessible on your phone. 


4) Do a test run

Before going to the dog park on the weekend, see if you are able to get by during non-peak hours to test that place out and see how your pup handles the environment and test their behavior. Having fewer distractions is a great way for them to get comfortable with their surroundings.


5) Let Them Go off-leash

The best part about the dog park is watching our furry friends run wild and free! It is a great time for them to get some exercise and make some new friends, but as we’ve mentioned above, make sure they are ready. The last thing you need is “Fido” running wild, causing a ruckus, and your dog attacks a kid or another dog. 


6) Clean up after your dog and yourself

Good dog park etiquette includes cleaning up your dog’s mess and of course yours. If your dog decides to do his business at the park, be sure you have baggies to clean it up, no one enjoys stepping in poop. Also, if you take some snacks and drink for yourself, be sure to throw them away when you’re done. 


7) Keep a close eye on your dog

As dog owners, we are like parents but for our 4 legged kids haha. And these kids can get wild real quick! Be sure to know where your dog is at, this could prevent issues or injury to your dog or someone else and their dog. The last thing we want is for your dog to bite someone, and they file a personal injury case against you. 


8) Put your dog’s safety first

Keeping our dogs safe, is our responsibility as pet owners. We owe it to them to do our best to keep them out of harm’s way. If you are entering the park and notice a few wild and aggressive dogs, it is ok to turn around and leave. There is no need to increase the chances of getting your dog or yourself injured. 


Wrapping it up

Dog parks are a great time for us and are really fun for our pups, so it is up to us to make sure we are following the park rules, take time to socialize our dog and do everything we can to make sure our friends have a good experience at the park. 

Always make sure to pack snacks, water, and a water bowl to make sure they stay hydrated when playing. Must of all, apply these park safety tips and have a fun day out! 


4 Common Reasons Why Dogs Bite

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4.5 million dog bites occur each year in the United States, with an estimated 1 in 5 bites becoming infected. With a number this high, it’s important to take every precaution to avoid becoming part of this statistic. One precaution includes understanding what causes dogs to bite. From feeling territorial to aggression caused by pain, there are many reasons a dog will lash out at their owner or a bystander. Learn more about 4 of the most common reasons for dog bites here.


Maternal Instinct

In the first few weeks after a female dog gives birth, she is the main source of everything her puppies need to survive – warmth, emotion, nourishment, and protection. Even if your dog is normally outgoing and friendly, this new role in her life can cause maternal aggression if she feels her newborns are at risk. To reduce the risk of a dog bite or attack, be aware of the new mother’s need for a safe space. Keep visitors to a minimum and only allow for 1-2 adult family members near the space at one time if you have friends visiting



Like humans, each dog has their own limit for pain and irritation. There are breeds that are commonly known for their pain sensitivity, such as chihuahuas, but most likely to bite or act out if they are in pain. If you notice your dog becoming irritable or acting out of character when you attempt to check a certain area for an injury, you should take your dog to your veterinarian or local animal hospital for treatment. 



A response involving fear aggression is usually directed towards strangers or visitors the dog is not very familiar with. Similar to people, dogs are naturally scared of unfamiliar and potentially dangerous situations. A scared dog may bark, lunge, or jump at whatever or whoever they perceive to be a threat. Loud noises, fast movements, and large groups of people are common causes of fear in dogs. There’s no specific breed or gender that fear aggression affects more, but it is commonly seen in dogs who were not exposed to socialization early on. 



In most cases, when a dog acts out in dominance aggression, it usually is pointed towards the dog’s human family. This happens during innocent interactions such as trying to move the dog off of the bed while changing the sheets or stepping over a dog laying in the middle of a doorway. A vocal warning can precede the bite and is caused by the dog’s belief that he is in charge. This behavior is common in unneutered males and more confident breeds, such as Chow Chows and Rottweilers. 


Understanding the reasons behind a dog’s aggression is a great step to working with your dog on their responses. According to an Indianapolis personal injury lawyer at Fountain Law Firm, P.C. who specializes in dog bites, a dog bite is not only emotionally traumatizing, but can also come along with many other obstacles, such as medical bills, plastic surgery, and other physical injuries. Before you interact with a new dog, take time to learn about their behavior and customs for the best results.

Dog Safety Tips for the Holiday Season

The holiday season spanning Thanksgiving to New Year’s is one of the most joyful, exciting times of the year. But it can be fraught with hazards for your furry friends. Check out these tips to help keep them safe and prevent an emergency trip to the vet.

Tell Guests You Have a Dog

If you have guests coming over, make sure to let them know ahead of time that you have a dog, especially if it’s a new pet or if they haven’t visited your house before. As wonderful as dogs are, some people are scared or allergic. They may need to take extra precautions, such as by bringing allergy medication or asking you to keep your dog in a separate room.

If the guests have young kids, they may also need to teach their kids how to be safe around dogs prior to coming over. Over 50% of the time, a child is the victim of a dog bite. This is an unfortunate statistic, so make sure to work together with your guests to ensure everyone knows what to do to stay safe.

On the other hand, perhaps a guest will want to bring their own dog. If you aren’t sure how the pets will get along, politely decline or spend some time supervising the pets to help them get acclimated to each other.

Avoid Feeding Your Dog Table Scraps

Many foods can be dangerous for dogs, so make sure you and your guests are on the safe page about keeping people food off-limits. Some foods to be particularly careful to avoid include:

  • Bones
  • Turkey and turkey skin
  • Candy, especially chocolate
  • Coffee grounds and beans
  • Citrus
  • Grapes and raisins
  • Onions
  • Raw eggs
  • Alcoholic beverages

The above foods are toxic to dogs, and many other human foods aren’t particularly good for dogs either. It’s best to err on the side of caution and only feed your pets the foods they normally eat. If you want to feed your dog something special to celebrate, you can always buy or make holiday-themed dog treats.

If you think your dog has been poisoned or eaten something they shouldn’t have, call your vet or local animal hospital right away. You might also want to call the ASPCA Poison Control Hotline at  (888) 426-4435

Provide a Safe Place for Escape

A loud holiday party may overwhelm your dog and lead to barking or aggressive behavior caused by stress. Prepare a quiet room or crate for your pet to escape the excitement. If you know your dog is anxious or easily excitable, you may want to put them in another room preemptively. Make sure to leave food, water, toys, and a bed in that room, so your dog can stay comfortable.

Though parties can be overwhelming for dogs, be sure not to put your furry friend outside during cold weather. It’s best to have a quiet, comfortable indoor space for your dog to relax. This is especially important to remember on New Year’s Eve, when fireworks and other loud noises might scare dogs.

Keep Decorations Out of Reach

Between the pine needles, glass lights, wires, and tinsel, Christmas trees can be quite dangerous for dogs. Be sure to avoid leaving your pet unattended with a Christmas tree, and keep all decorations out of reach. Plastic Christmas lights are safer than glass, and small or breakable ornaments should be above your dog’s reach or in a separate room they can’t get into. Also keep in mind that the water in the tree stand often contains bacteria or chemicals that could make your dog sick, so don’t let them drink out of it.

The same goes for candles and holiday plants like poinsettias, holly, or mistletoe: don’t leave your pet alone with these decorations. Candles should never be left unattended in general; having a dog loose around them greatly increases the risk of a fire. And these popular holiday plants can be toxic to pets.

Clean Up Quickly

Dogs are notorious for eating things they shouldn’t. Wrapping paper, ribbons, tissue paper, and other materials used to wrap gifts, can actually be dangerous to dogs if ingested. They can be a choking hazard or cause digestive issues. Instead of letting your furry friend play with the gift wrappings for an extended period of time, consider giving them their own stocking full of dog toys to ensure safe Christmas morning play time.

Additionally, make sure to clean up food right after a party or gathering and dispose of the trash somewhere your dog can’t get to it.

Dog Behavior Issues: Understanding & Treating Bad Habits

Certain dog behaviors are considered as bad if they become excessive and unwelcome. Unlike humans, dogs do not have a sense of what is right or wrong. It is up to the owner to teach their dog good behavior and correct bad behavioral issues. To fix or preventing certain bad behaviors, it is important to have a good understanding of what they are and what the cause may be.

Aggression and Biting

Aggression is one of the most common behavioral issues. While not all aggressive dogs bite, there is a strong possibility that dogs who show aggressive tendencies will end up biting someone. Treating aggression issues is important to avoid any liability from a possible dog bite.
Aggression can be caused by illness, injury, anxiety, fear, etc. In order to properly treat aggression issues, it is important to know what the cause of the aggression is.


It is important to remember that some dog breeds have a tendency to bark more than others. Barking is natural and is one form of vocal communication in dogs. However, when a dog’s barking becomes excessive, it becomes a behavioral issue. Some common reasons dogs may bark are:

  •  Attention seeking
  • Warning
  • Anxiety or fear
  • Bored or excited
  • Greeting someone

In order to reduce barking, owners will have to address the cause of the barking. Additionally, avoid rewarding or give your dog what they are asking for when they bark and reward them when they remain quiet.

Separation Anxiety

Like humans, all dogs can experience some form of anxiety. The most common type of anxiety dogs may experience is “separation anxiety”. Dogs who experience this may show destructive behavior when left alone including:

  • Urinating
  • Excessive barking, howling or whining
  • Chewing
  • Attempting to escape

Treatments for separation anxiety require training, behavior modifications, and medication in extreme cases. Treating dog separation anxiety will take time and effort from dog owners. If untreated, dog anxiety can lead to other behavioral issues such as aggression, excessive barking, and other destructive behavior.

Jumping on People

Jumping is common and natural in dogs. Dogs may jump on people to greet them or jump when seeking something in someone’s hand. Excessive jumping however can be annoying and can lead to injuries, especially in small children. Since this is often-times an attention-seeking behavior, owners should ignore their dogs when they jump up.


Begging happens when dogs site by the dinner table and ask for the owner’s food scraps. This is a habit that is often taught by owners. However, begging should not be encouraged as it can lead to obesity and digestive issues. The best way to treat this is to take preventative measures. Experts recommend telling your dog to go somewhere where they cannot see you. If they behave, you may reward them by giving them a treat or giving them your leftovers in their food bowl.

Who is Liable for Dog Bite Injuries & Property Damage at Work?

The question of whether to allow dogs in the workplace is one that many employers face. A dog-friendly office can be a major perk for many employees, and sometimes fulfilling ADA requirements supersede an employer’s decision, if an employee with disabilities requires a service animal to do their job.

Outside of ADA considerations, allowing pet dogs in the office can open an employer up to major liability, since generally, employers will be liable for dog attacks and damages that occur in the workplace, although dog owners share some of that liability. While the exact legal specifics may vary by state and individual case, the liability general falls into two categories: personal injury and property damage.

Personal Injury Liability

Unlike homeowners and renters insurance policies, which typically cover the legal expenses of dog bite liability, dogs in the workplace are not excluded from liability. If a dog attacks and injures an employee, customer, or any guests invited onsite, the business owner can be held liable. The dog owner could be liable as well, and the injured employee could potentially sue both the employer and the dog owner.

Property Damage Liability

Another factor to consider if dogs are allowed in the workplace is property damage. Dogs can be destructive, especially if they are bored or not adequately trained, and allowing them in an office can easily lead to the destruction of office equipment, including chairs, computer monitors, and carpets. These are all things the employer would have to replace if they get damaged by a dog. And if a dog damages another employee’s personal property that is rightfully in the office, the employer could be held liable.

Insurance & Indemnification

One solution to both of these liability issues is to have comprehensive rules for dogs allowed in the office. The employer may choose to require the owner to get insurance that covers any injuries their dog causes. They can also require that employees planning to bring dogs to work sign an indemnification agreement, meaning the employee will have to cover the cost of defending the company against dog bite injury cases. In addition, the employer can ask the employee to sign a contract saying they will cover the cost of property damaged by their dog.

While some employees may think these policies seem extreme or unnecessary, they help ensure that a dog-friendly office is also employer-friendly by limiting the liability the company faces if problems arise.


Welcoming furry friends to the workplace can contribute to a better work culture, helping to attract and retain employees. While not all risks can be avoided, employers can take steps to limit their liability while making employees happy. In addition to the policies regarding insurance, the employer should create written policies explaining the details of the dog-friendly office that include everything from how often dogs are allowed to be there to what will happen if a dog misbehaves. 

Ultimately, each business owner will have to weigh the benefits against the risks and then decide. If employers establish detailed, well-thought-out policies that they enforce fairly, there is a much better chance of the program working out well for all parties involved: employers, landlords, employees, and dogs.

Dogs in the Workplace: ADA Considerations

Should dogs be allowed in the workplace?

From employer liability to improving office culture, there are strong arguments to be made on both sides. Generally, it is up to the employer to weigh the pros and cons of a dog-friendly office then decide accordingly. But in some cases, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) dictates whether dogs must (or must not) be allowed in a specific workplace based on individual employee needs.

Here we will examine a few examples of common scenarios that arise related to dogs in the workplace and the ADA. If you fall into one of these categories and find that your employer is not complying with federal regulations, you may need to contact an employee rights lawyer in your area who handles ADA cases.

ADA Provisions for Service Dogs

If an employee with a disability requires a service animal to help them perform the essential functions of the job, the ADA generally requires employers to provide reasonable accommodations, as requested by the employee. In this case, the accommodation would be allowing the dog, provided that doing so does not cause the employer undue hardship.

It is important to note that only dogs are recognized as service animals: Service animals are defined as dogs that are individually trained to do work or perform tasks for people with disabilities. (Some states may use a broader definition than the ADA’s.) The service animal must stay under the owner’s control and must be restrained.

Service dogs may not be accommodated in workplaces requiring a sterile environment, like a medical lab or a restaurant kitchen. Allowing dogs in those types of settings may compromise patient, product, or food safety.

ADA Provisions for Animal Allergies

While dog allergies do not invalidate the provisions of the ADA, the law may also protect a person with allergies serious enough to be a disability. And even if not considered a disability, the allergies could make that employee less productive, indicating 

If an employee has a severe allergic reaction to dogs, the employer will most likely not be allowed to open the workplace to dogs. But if one employee requires a service dog and another is severely allergic, there can be a conflict.

When These Needs Conflict

Unfortunately, there’s no clear-cut solution to the conflict, and people have a variety of opinions on this topic. According to the ADA, ideally, the employer will find a way to keep the two in separate areas of the building, so the one can have their service dog and the other can avoid the allergy trigger.

Additional adjustments may be required to develop a win-win solution. Since creating ADA accommodations is a unique, interactive process that requires good-faith discussion, the employer and the two affected employees should meet to discuss their options. Possibilities to consider include:

  • Provide one or both employees with private/enclosed workspace.
  • Use a portable air purifier at each workstation.
  • Adjust the employees’ work schedules so they do not work at the same time.
  • Allow one of the employees to work from home or in another location.
  • Allow employees to take rest breaks if needed (ie: to take allergy medicine).
  • Ask the employee who uses the dog if he or she is able to temporarily use other accommodations during meetings attended by both employees.
  • Provide alternatives to in-person communication, such as email and videoconferencing.
  • Add HEPA filters to the office’s ventilation system.
  • Ensure that the work area (including carpets and floors) is cleaned, dusted, and vacuumed regularly.

Different Degrees of Dog-Friendliness

For employer liability purposes and dog allergies, the best decision may be to limit dogs in the workplace to service animals, rather than allowing for a dog-friendly office that allows employees to bring their dogs to work as they please. If having dogs is seen as a major perk, one option is to make it a special occasion rather than an everyday thing by holding an annual or semi-annual Bring Your Pet to Work Day.